medicineisnotmerchandise:



Holoprosencephaly

medicineisnotmerchandise:

Holoprosencephaly

scinerds:

Thanks to Stanford University’s aptly named Clarity, scientists are now able to scan the brain for unobstructed views of neurons and their connections. In this scan, aided by a green fluorescent protein, one is able to see the axonal and dendritic branches of neurons within the hippocampus.

scinerds:

Thanks to Stanford University’s aptly named Clarity, scientists are now able to scan the brain for unobstructed views of neurons and their connections. In this scan, aided by a green fluorescent protein, one is able to see the axonal and dendritic branches of neurons within the hippocampus.

Brains as Clear as Jello for Scientists to Explore

Scientists at Stanford University reported on Wednesday that they have made a whole mouse brain, and part of a human brain, transparent so that networks of neurons that receive and send information can be highlighted in stunning color and viewed in all their three-dimensional complexity without slicing up the organ.
Even more important, experts say, is that unlike earlier methods for making the tissue of brains and other organs transparent, the new process, called Clarity by its inventors, preserves the biochemistry of the brain so well that researchers can test it over and over again with chemicals that highlight specific structures and provide clues to past activity. The researchers say this process may help uncover the physical underpinnings of devastating mental disorders like schizophrenia, autism, post-traumatic stress disorder and others.

The image above shows a mouse brain was made transparent through this process and later dyed.
Read More

Brains as Clear as Jello for Scientists to Explore

Scientists at Stanford University reported on Wednesday that they have made a whole mouse brain, and part of a human brain, transparent so that networks of neurons that receive and send information can be highlighted in stunning color and viewed in all their three-dimensional complexity without slicing up the organ.

Even more important, experts say, is that unlike earlier methods for making the tissue of brains and other organs transparent, the new process, called Clarity by its inventors, preserves the biochemistry of the brain so well that researchers can test it over and over again with chemicals that highlight specific structures and provide clues to past activity. The researchers say this process may help uncover the physical underpinnings of devastating mental disorders like schizophrenia, autism, post-traumatic stress disorder and others.

The image above shows a mouse brain was made transparent through this process and later dyed.

Read More

In a new study, zebrafish display signs of fear upon smelling sugar which are identical to their reactions to the pheromones released by other injured fish. Now scientists are speculating that this study could not only hint at the chemical composition of these pheromones, but also the origin of fear in fish and humans.

neurolove:

“No Lie MRI”
Feedthecrows asked me through a submitted question, “[I] have heard sociopaths are psychopaths that [haven’t] been caught, do you think that their brainwaves will catch them?”  It’s a great question, and it starts to get at the ethics of MRI.  Can we use MRI as a diagnostic tool for psychiatric disorders?  Could we scan the brains of people and be able to tell if they are psychopaths by their brain images?
I would argue that we aren’t there yet.  MRI is a great tool, and it helps us to see where in the brain different disorders might manifest (which could help develop treatments), but I don’t think MRI can diagnose disorders.  It can merely observe them.
Along the same lines, can we use MRI to tell what people are really thinking and if they are telling the truth?  I have attached an image from the homepage of No Lie MRI… which claims that MRI can be used as a lie detector test.  I think theoretically, this is interesting.  Brain regions involved in memories are different than those used in creating a story (or lie), BUT what if a person has told a lie so many times that they are pulling it from memory?  Or what if the memory is so faint or so emotionally involved that it activates regions that we think would be involved in lying?  I think that this raises a lot of ethical questions and quite frankly, as someone who does MRI research, I think we just simply are not there yet.  But maybe in the future… who knows?  Anything is possible.

neurolove:

“No Lie MRI”

Feedthecrows asked me through a submitted question, “[I] have heard sociopaths are psychopaths that [haven’t] been caught, do you think that their brainwaves will catch them?”  It’s a great question, and it starts to get at the ethics of MRI.  Can we use MRI as a diagnostic tool for psychiatric disorders?  Could we scan the brains of people and be able to tell if they are psychopaths by their brain images?

I would argue that we aren’t there yet.  MRI is a great tool, and it helps us to see where in the brain different disorders might manifest (which could help develop treatments), but I don’t think MRI can diagnose disorders.  It can merely observe them.

Along the same lines, can we use MRI to tell what people are really thinking and if they are telling the truth?  I have attached an image from the homepage of No Lie MRI… which claims that MRI can be used as a lie detector test.  I think theoretically, this is interesting.  Brain regions involved in memories are different than those used in creating a story (or lie), BUT what if a person has told a lie so many times that they are pulling it from memory?  Or what if the memory is so faint or so emotionally involved that it activates regions that we think would be involved in lying?  I think that this raises a lot of ethical questions and quite frankly, as someone who does MRI research, I think we just simply are not there yet.  But maybe in the future… who knows?  Anything is possible.

A sagittal view of brain development in terms of typical gray matter volume. (Based off this chart) Here’s a smoother, yet smaller view:
 

A sagittal view of brain development in terms of typical gray matter volume. (Based off this chart) Here’s a smoother, yet smaller view:

 

Carmen Laethem, Aerie Pharmaceuticals, USA by GE Healthcare on Flickr.
Primary Porcine Trabecular Meshwork Cells stained for actin (blue), tubulin (green) and focal adhesions (red).

Carmen Laethem, Aerie Pharmaceuticals, USA by GE Healthcare on Flickr.

Primary Porcine Trabecular Meshwork Cells stained for actin (blue), tubulin (green) and focal adhesions (red).

Speech-Jamming Gun That Can Silence Mid-Sentence
We all have that one friend who just doesn’t know when to shut up. Doesn’t it make you want to shoot them with a gun that scrambles their thoughts, thereby preventing speech? Well, Japanese inventors have a product to offer!
Researchers have manufactured a “SpeechJammer” that allows you to silence people up to 30 meters away, without an instance of pain. Developed by Kazutaka Kurihara of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology and Koji Tsukada of Ochanomizu University, this device records the target’s speech and fires their own vernacular back at them with a delay just long enough that it affects the brain’s cognitive processes, causing speakers to stutter before finally silencing them.
Though the device works best on those who are reading aloud, it has been suggested that this could be utilized in such every-day scenarios as avoiding interruptions or chatty-Cathys in the library. Or maybe even superfluous politicians? 

Speech-Jamming Gun That Can Silence Mid-Sentence

We all have that one friend who just doesn’t know when to shut up. Doesn’t it make you want to shoot them with a gun that scrambles their thoughts, thereby preventing speech? Well, Japanese inventors have a product to offer!

Researchers have manufactured a “SpeechJammer” that allows you to silence people up to 30 meters away, without an instance of pain. Developed by Kazutaka Kurihara of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology and Koji Tsukada of Ochanomizu University, this device records the target’s speech and fires their own vernacular back at them with a delay just long enough that it affects the brain’s cognitive processes, causing speakers to stutter before finally silencing them.

Though the device works best on those who are reading aloud, it has been suggested that this could be utilized in such every-day scenarios as avoiding interruptions or chatty-Cathys in the library. Or maybe even superfluous politicians? 

zygoma:

Thanks to http://catchingorigami.tumblr.com/ for sending me a message about the images they posted of their father who had brain surgery due to an acute subdural hematoma. 

First image: “So dad’s staples were taken out today, there were a total of 83 in a wide swoop from his forehead to behind his ear.”

Second image: “64 staples out.”

Third image: “The full curve.”

A subdural hematoma (American spelling) or subdural haematoma (British spelling), also known as a subdural haemorrhage (SDH), is a type of haematoma, a form of traumatic brain injury. Blood gathers within the outermost meningeal layer, between the dura mater, which adheres to the skull, and the arachnoid mater, which envelops the brain. Usually resulting from tears in bridging veins which cross the subdural space, subdural hemorrhages may cause an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), which can cause compression of and damage to delicate brain tissue. Subdural hematomas are often life-threatening when acute. Chronic subdural hematomas, however, have better prognosis if properly managed.

In contrast, epidural hematomas are usually caused by tears in arteries, resulting in a build-up of blood between the dura mater and skull.

Subdural hematomas occur most often around the tops and sides of the frontal and parietal lobes. They also occur in the posterior cranial fossa, and near the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli. Unlike epidural hematomas, which cannot expand past the sutures of the skull, subdural hematomas can expand along the inside of the skull, creating a concave shape that follows the curve of the brain, stopping only at the dural reflections like the tentorium cerebelli and falx cerebri.

Treatment of a subdural hematoma depends on its size and rate of growth. Some small subdural hematomas can be managed by careful monitoring until the body heals itself. Other small subdural hematomas can be managed by inserting a temporary small catheter through a hole drilled through the skull and sucking out the hematoma; this procedure can be done at the bedside. Large or symptomatic hematomas require a craniotomy, the surgical opening of the skull. A surgeon then opens the dura, removes the blood clot with suction or irrigation, and identifies and controls sites of bleeding. Postoperative complications include increased intracranial pressure, brain edema, new or recurrent bleeding, infection, and seizure. The injured vessels must be repaired.

*Please do not remove the info/source links as this was a voluntary submission.

mothernaturenetwork:

Women who get migraines more likely to develop depressionScientists remain uncertain about what links depression and migraines together.

mothernaturenetwork:

Women who get migraines more likely to develop depression
Scientists remain uncertain about what links depression and migraines together.

Cone-shaped tongue papillae, seen here in a colored scanning electron micrograph, contain nerve endings that receive and transmit touch sensations to the brain. As we begin chewing, the tongue shapes food in a ball-shaped bolus for swallowing.

Cone-shaped tongue papillae, seen here in a colored scanning electron micrograph, contain nerve endings that receive and transmit touch sensations to the brain. As we begin chewing, the tongue shapes food in a ball-shaped bolus for swallowing.

Pictured above is a hair follicle surrounded by colorful nerve fibers, which are responsible for sensation. The nerves detect the minute changes in the position of hairs, such as the sensation of lightly brushing a finger along your arm hair.
According to Live Science:

New research on sensory signals finds that a protein crucial to eye development is also important for the ability of both humans and mice to sense vibrations. The c-Maf protein is known for its importance in proper eye development; when something goes wrong with c-Maf, cataracts result. It turns out that when c-Maf mutates, Pacinian corpuscles, a kind of touch receptor specialized to detect fast vibrations, also atrophy. Humans have Pacinian corpuscles in our fingertips, meaning that one messed-up protein can damage multiple senses.

Pictured above is a hair follicle surrounded by colorful nerve fibers, which are responsible for sensation. The nerves detect the minute changes in the position of hairs, such as the sensation of lightly brushing a finger along your arm hair.

According to Live Science:

New research on sensory signals finds that a protein crucial to eye development is also important for the ability of both humans and mice to sense vibrations. The c-Maf protein is known for its importance in proper eye development; when something goes wrong with c-Maf, cataracts result. It turns out that when c-Maf mutates, Pacinian corpuscles, a kind of touch receptor specialized to detect fast vibrations, also atrophy. Humans have Pacinian corpuscles in our fingertips, meaning that one messed-up protein can damage multiple senses.

Ecstasy is big on the party scene, used to enhance rave experiences and such, but what really is going on with those “happy pills”?
General Background: Certain variations of ecstasy, or N-methyl3,4methylenedioxy-amphetamine, namely MDMA, have been around since 1914, when it was synthesized in a lab and rather promptly forgotten. That is, until the 70’s when the general populous got their hands on it, but it’s popularity never peaked until the 80’s. Once the DEA caught a whiff of the extensive use and possible neurological effects, they finally declared it a Schedule I controlled substance in 1985, meaning it has no legitimate uses and is illegal under any circumstances.
The Good Stuff: For a mere $20 or $30 a pill, an ecstasy tablet will light up your brain’s pleasure-reward system. The user will feel more confident, have a quicker heart-rate, and feel more alert and aroused while remaining relaxed, due to boosts in the brain in levels of both norepinephrine and dopamine. Even therapists commend ecstasy for its ability to boost insight, enhance empathy and communication, and aid patients in overcoming emotional blocks without the unpredictability of LSD, suggesting possible usefulness in depression and PTSD treatment.
The Bad Stuff: While MDMA causes less dissociation and fewer panic reactions than other psychedelic drugs, studies have shown that the drug attacks areas in brain cells that manufacture serotonin. In these studies, researchers found that half of serotonin producing neurons still remained damaged eight weeks later, and even low-dose first time usage could lead to long-term memory problems. Other side-effects of normal dosages include hyperthermia, as the drug raises body-temperatures to excessively high levels, heart attacks in cardiac arrhythmia patients, and liver damage after long-term repeated use. Upon overdose, minor side-effects include anxiety, delusions, and paranoia.

Ecstasy is big on the party scene, used to enhance rave experiences and such, but what really is going on with those “happy pills”?

General Background: Certain variations of ecstasy, or N-methyl3,4methylenedioxy-amphetamine, namely MDMA, have been around since 1914, when it was synthesized in a lab and rather promptly forgotten. That is, until the 70’s when the general populous got their hands on it, but it’s popularity never peaked until the 80’s. Once the DEA caught a whiff of the extensive use and possible neurological effects, they finally declared it a Schedule I controlled substance in 1985, meaning it has no legitimate uses and is illegal under any circumstances.

The Good Stuff: For a mere $20 or $30 a pill, an ecstasy tablet will light up your brain’s pleasure-reward system. The user will feel more confident, have a quicker heart-rate, and feel more alert and aroused while remaining relaxed, due to boosts in the brain in levels of both norepinephrine and dopamine. Even therapists commend ecstasy for its ability to boost insight, enhance empathy and communication, and aid patients in overcoming emotional blocks without the unpredictability of LSD, suggesting possible usefulness in depression and PTSD treatment.

The Bad Stuff: While MDMA causes less dissociation and fewer panic reactions than other psychedelic drugs, studies have shown that the drug attacks areas in brain cells that manufacture serotonin. In these studies, researchers found that half of serotonin producing neurons still remained damaged eight weeks later, and even low-dose first time usage could lead to long-term memory problems. Other side-effects of normal dosages include hyperthermia, as the drug raises body-temperatures to excessively high levels, heart attacks in cardiac arrhythmia patients, and liver damage after long-term repeated use. Upon overdose, minor side-effects include anxiety, delusions, and paranoia.

Pictured above is one of the many works of Santiago Ramon y Cajal, an artist whose relentless focus on the nervous system both displayed unmatchable views inside of our brains and led to remarkable findings within this previously misunderstood anatomical region. In the above illustration, Cajal depicted a diagram of the spinal cord with both individual cells and entire nerve tracts. According to his sketch, motor commands travel down the spine from the left side of the brain, while sensory feedback travels up the spine to the right side of the brain.
See more of his works and read an in-depth biography at Discover Magazine.

Pictured above is one of the many works of Santiago Ramon y Cajal, an artist whose relentless focus on the nervous system both displayed unmatchable views inside of our brains and led to remarkable findings within this previously misunderstood anatomical region. In the above illustration, Cajal depicted a diagram of the spinal cord with both individual cells and entire nerve tracts. According to his sketch, motor commands travel down the spine from the left side of the brain, while sensory feedback travels up the spine to the right side of the brain.

See more of his works and read an in-depth biography at Discover Magazine.